Singing without accompanying instruments.
Emphasis on a note, word, or phrase.
A tempo having slow movement; restful at ease.
A direction to play lively and fast.
The ways in which a song’s parts are organized for performance.
A musical technique in which notes in a chord are played in sequence, one after the other, instead of ringing out simultaneously. Also known as a “broken chord.”
The way a sound is started and ended.
Music that is written and performed without regard to any specific key.
The beginning of a sound.
Bar (or Measure)
A segment of time in musical notation defined by a given number of beats.
Time in music history ranging between the mid 16th & 17th centuries. Characterized by emotional, flowery music written in strict form.
The unit of musical rhythm.
A section of a song intended to provide contrast to the rest of the composition.
A sequence of chords that brings an end to a phrase, either in the middle or the end of a composition.
Think ‘Row Row Row Your Boat.’ A musical form where the melody or tune is imitated by individual parts at regular intervals. The individual parts may enter at different measures and pitches.
Male singers who were castrated to preserve their alto and soprano vocal range.
A musician’s level of technique in terms of the ability to execute music physically on a particular musical instrument.
Three or more notes sounded together, as a basis of harmony.
A group of chords played in succession.
Moving in half-steps.
Includes all twelve notes of an octave.
In sheet music, a symbol at the beginning of the staff defining the pitch of the notes found in that particular staff.
Italian for “tail”. A term used in music primarily to designate a passage that brings a piece to an end.
Groups of tones that are harmonious when sounded together as in a chord.
Two or three melodic lines played at the same time.
A piece of music written for two vocalists or instrumentalists.
A set of two musicians.
Relative loudness or softness
The performance of either all instruments or voices in a chorus.
A style of male singing whereby partial use of the vocal chords, the voice is able to reach the pitch of a female.
The interval between two notes. Three whole tones and one semitone make up the distance between the two notes.
A symbol indicating that the note is to be diminished by one semitone.
A symbol indicating to play loud.
The interval between two notes. Two whole tones and one semitone make up the distance between the two notes.
Vocal composition written for three or more solo parts, usually without instrumental accompaniment.
Pleasing combination of 2 or 3 tones played together while a melody is being played. Harmony also refers to the study of chord progressions.
A style where all parts have the same rhythm.
Arrangement of music for a combined number of instruments.
Being in tune with accompaniment or others.
The expression the performer brings when playing his/her instrument.
The opening section of a piece of music or movement.
System of notes or tones based on and named after the key note.
The flats and sharps at the beginning of each staff line indicating the key of music the piece is to be played.
Italian for “tied together”. Indicates that musical notes are played or sung smoothly and connected. The player makes a transition from note to note with no intervening silence.
One of the two modes of the tonal system. Music written in major keys have a positive affirming character.
The unit of measure where the beats on the lines of the staff are divided up into two, three, four beats to a measure.
Often used in overtures, a composition that uses passages from other movements of the composition in its entirety.
Pitches in sequence that form a pattern.
The division of time into units.
One of the two modes of the tonal system. The minor mode can be identified by the dark, melancholic mood.
The process where a piece of music changes from one key to another key. Also, variation in the strength, tone or pitch.
Repetition of a single tone.
Primary theme or subject that is developed.
A separate section of a larger composition.
A piece of music that has been adapted for performance by a particular set of voices or instruments.
First developed in the 8th century, methods of writing music.
Eight full tones above the key note where the scale begins and ends.
Opposite of ‘Intro’ (Introduction) located at the end of a song.
A recording technique in which additional recordings are added to an original recording.
A musical scale having five notes. For example: the five black keys of a keyboard make up a pentatonic scale.
A single line of music played or sung. A musical sentence.
The frequency of a note determining how high or low it sounds. Measured in Hz
Sitting/standing correctly and efficiently.
The movement of chords in succession.
Feeling where the beat is.
A set of four musicians.
A set of five musicians.
A repeating phrase that is played at the end of each verse in the song.
How a sound is ended.
The element of music pertaining to time, played as a grouping of notes into accented and unaccented beats.
Successive notes of a key or mode either ascending or descending.
A set of seven musicians who perform a composition written for seven parts.
A set of six musicians who perform a composition written for six parts.
A symbol indicating the note is to be raised by one semitone.
The highest female voice.
Short detached notes, as opposed to legato.
A set of horizontal lines and intermediate spaces used in notation to represent a sequence of pitches, in modern notation normally consisting of five lines and four spaces. Also called stave.
The speed at which a regular pulse is repeated.
Tone color, quality of sound that distinguishes one verse or instrument to another. It is determined by the harmonies of sound.
A numeric symbol in sheet music determining the number of beats per measure.
The first tone of a scale also known as a keynote.
The playing or singing the upper half of the vocal range.
Quick repetition of the same note or the rapid alternation between two notes.
Three note chords consisting of a root, third, and fifth.
A set of three musicians.
Time signature with three beats to the measure.
Three notes played in the same amount of time as one or two beats.
Everyone on the same pitch.
Creating variation pitch in a note by quickly alternating between notes.
A song composed in triple time (3/4) with the accent falling on the first beat of each measure.